Species Groups

Learn about the following species groups (including their most common members, as well as purchasing, storage and cooking information), or select a specific species from the species list on the right.

More Species Groups 

Thunnus alalunga
Atlantic Salmon
Salmo salar
Australian Bass
Macquaria novemaculeata
Australian Salmon
Arripus trutta (Eastern Australian Salmon)
Arripus truttaceaus (Western Australian Salmon)
Australian Sardine
Sardinops neopilchardus
Bailer Shell
Livonia mamilla (False Bailer Shell)
Melo species (Melon Shell)
Other members of the Zidoninae subfamily (Bailer Shell)
Balmain Bug
Ibacus peronii (Eastern Balmain Bug)
Banana Prawn
Fenneropenaeus indicus (Redleg Banana Prawn)
Fenneropenaeus merguiensis (White Banana Prawn)
Bar Rockcod
Epinephelus septemfasciatus (Bar Rockcod)
Epinephelus ergastularius (Banded Rockcod)
Lates calcarifer
Bay Prawn
Metapenaeus bennettae (Greentail Prawn)
Metapenaeus insolitus (Greasyback Prawn)
Bigeye Trevally
Caranx sexfasciatus
Bigeye Tuna
Thunnus obesus
Black Bream
Acanthopagrus butcheri
Black Pomfret
Parastromateus niger
Blacklip Abalone
Haliotis rubra
Blue Grenadier
Macruronus novaezelandiae
Blue Mackerel
Scomber australasicus
Blue Mussel
Mytilus galloprovincialis
Blue Swimmer Crab
Portunus pelagicus
Blue Warehou
Seriolella brama
Blue-Eye Trevalla
Hyperoglyphe antarctica (Blue-eye Trevalla)
Schedophilus labyrinthica (Ocean Blue-eye)
Bluespotted Flathead
Platycephalus caeruleopunctatus
Sarda australis (Australian Bonito)
Sarda orientalis (Oriental Bonito)
Cybiosarda elegans (Leaping Bonito)
Chinook Salmon (‘King’ Salmon)
Oncorhynchus tshawytscha
Commercial Scallop
Pecten fumatus
Coral Trout
Variola louti (Coronation Trout)
Plectropomus oligacanthus (Vermicular Cod)
Plectropomus laevis (Bluespotted Coral Trout)
Plectropomus leopardus (Common Coral Trout)
Plectropomus maculatus (Barcheek Coral Trout)
Plectropomus areolatus (Passionfruit Coral Trout)
Sepia apama (Giant Cuttlefish)
Sepia pharaonis (Pharaoh’s Cuttlefish)
Trachinotus botla (Common Dart)
Trachinotus baillonii (Smallspotted Dart)
Trachinotus blochii (Snubnose Dart)
Trachinotus coppingeri (Swallowtail Dart)
Trachinotus anak (Giant Oystercracker Dart)
Deepwater Flathead
Neoplatycephalus conatus
Diamondscale Mullet
Liza vaigiensis
Dusky Flathead
Platycephalus fuscus
Eastern Rocklobster
Jasus verreauxi
Eastern Shovelnose Ray
Aptychotrema rostrata
Eastern Wirrah
Acanthistius ocellatus
Endeavour Prawn
Metapenaeus endeavouri (Blue Endeavour Prawn)
Metapenaeus ensis (Red Endeavour Prawn)
Frypan Bream
Argyrops spinifer
Giant Trevally
Caranx ignobilis
Goldband Snapper
Pristipomoides multidens (Goldband Snapper)
Pristipomoides typus (Sharptooth Snapper)
Golden Perch
Macquaria ambigua
Golden Trevally
Gnathanodon speciosus
Goldspotted Rockcod
Epinephelus coioides
Gould's Squid
Nototodarus gouldi
Grass Emperor
Lethrinus laticaudis
Greenlip Abalone
Haliotis laevigata
Grey Mackerel
Scomberomorus semifasciatus
Jack Mackerel
Trachurus declivis (Common Jack Mackerel)
Trachurus murphyi (Peruvian Jack Mackerel)
Jackass Morwong
Nemadactylus macropterus
John Dory
Zeus faber
King Dory
Cyttus traversi
King George Whiting
Sillaginodes punctata
King Prawn
Melicertus latisulcatus (Western King Prawn)
Melicertus plebejus (Eastern King Prawn)
Melicertus longistylus (Redspot King Prawn)
King Threadfin
Polydactylus macrochir
Loligo Squid
Loligo formosa
Loligo chinensis
Longfin Perch
Caprodon longimanus
Longnose Emperor
Lethrinus olivaceus
Longtail Tuna
Thunnus tonggol
Luminous Bay Squid
Loliolus noctiluca
Cherax tenuimanus (Margaret River Marron)
Cherax cainii (Smooth Marron)
Mirror Dory
Zenopsis nebulosus
Moreton Bay Bug
Thenus orientalis (Sandbug)
Thenus indicus (Mudbug)
Mud Crab
Scylla serrata (Giant Mud Crab)
Scylla olivacea (Orange Mud Crab)
Murray Cod
Maccullochella peelii
Native Oyster
Ostrea angasi
Northern Calamari
Sepioteuthis lessoniana
Ocean Jacket
Nelusetta ayraudi
Octopus aegina (Baby Octopus)
Octopus tetricus (Sydney Octopus)
Octopus australia (Southern Octopus)
Octopus maorum (Maori Octopus)
Octopus pallidus (Pale Octopus)
Octopus graptus (Scribbled Night Octopus)
Pacific Oyster
Crassostrea gigas
Littorinidae species (‘True’ Periwinkle)
Neritidae species (Nerite) 
Turbo species (Turban Shells)
Pikey Bream
Acanthopagrus berda
Pink Ling
Genypterus blacodes
Donax deltoides
Scomberoides tol (Needleskin Queenfish)
Scomberoides tala (Barred Queenfish)
Scomberoides lysan (Lesser Queenfish)
Scomberoides commersonnianus (Giant Queenfish)
Red Emperor
Lutjanus sebae
Cherax quadricarinatus
Centroberyx affinis
Redspot Emperor
Lethrinus lentjan
Redthroat Emperor
Lethrinus miniatus
Mora moro
Rock Ling
Genypterus tigerinus
Royal Red Prawn
Haliporoides sibogae
Seriola dumerili (Amberjack)
Seriola hippos (Samsonfish)
Sand Whiting
Sillago ciliata
Saucer Scallop
Amusium balloti (Ballot’s Saucer Scallop)
Amusium pleuronectes (Northern Saucer Scallop)
School Mackerel
Scomberomorus queenslandicus
School Prawn
Metapenaeus macleayi (School Prawn)
Metapenaeus dalli (Western School Prawn)
School Whiting
Sillago flindersi (Eastern School Whiting)
Sillago bassensis (Southern School Whiting)
Sillago robusta (Stout Whiting)
Sea Mullet
Mugil cephalus
Gymnocranius griseus (Grey Seabream)
Gymnocranius grandoculis (Robinson's Seabream)
Gymnocranius elongates (Swallowtail Seabream)
Gymnocranius audleyi (Collar Seabream)
Gnathodentex aureolineatus (Goldspot Seabream)
Gymnocranius euanus (Paddletail Seabream)
Monotaxis grandoculis (Bigeye Seabream)
Gymnocranius microdon (Bluespotted Seabream)
Wattsia mossambica (Mozambique Seabream)
Silver Dory
Cyttus australis
Silver Perch
Bidyanus bidyanus
Silver Trevally
Pseudocaranx dentex (Silver Trevally)
Pseudocaranx wrighti (Skipjack Trevally)
Silver Warehou
Seriolella punctata
Pagrus auratus
Southern Bluefin Tuna
Thunnus maccoyii
Southern Calamari
Sepioteuthis australis
Southern Rocklobster
Jasus edwardsii
Southern Sand Flathead
Platycephalus bassensis
Spangled Emperor
Lethrinus nebulosus (Greater Spangled Emperor)
Lethrinus sp. (Lesser Spangled Emperor)
Spanish Mackerel
Scomberomorus commerson
Spanner Crab
Ranina ranina
Spotted Mackerel
Scomberomorus munroi
Striped Marlin
Tetrapturus audax
Surf Clam
Dosinia caerulea
Xiphias gladius
Sydney Rock Oyster
Saccostrea glomerata
Rhabdosargus sarba
Tiger Flathead
Neoplatycephalus richardsoni (Tiger Flathead)
Neoplatycephalus aurimaculatus (Toothy Flathead)
Tiger Prawn
Penaeus monodon (Black Tiger Prawn)
Marsupenaeus japonicus (Kuruma Prawn)
Penaeus esculentus (Brown Tiger Prawn)
Penaeus semisulcatus (Grooved Tiger Prawn)
Trochus niloticus
Tropical Rocklobster
Panulirus ornatus (Ornate Rocklobster)
Other Panulirus species except P.cygnus
Trumpeter Whiting
Sillago maculate
Tun Shell
Tonnidae family
Katelysia scalarina
Katelysia peronii
Katelysia rhytiphora
Western Rocklobster
Panulirus cygnus
Cherax destructor (Yabby)
Cherax destructor albidus (White Yabby)
Cherax preissii, Cherax plebejus (Koonac)
Cherax quinquecarinatus (Gilgie)
Other Cherax (except C.quadricarinatus, C.tenuimanus & C.cainii)
Yellowfin Bream
Acanthopagrus australis
Yellowfin Tuna
Thunnus albacares
Yellowfin Whiting
Sillago schomburgkii
Yellowspotted Rockcod
Epinephelus areolatus
Yellowtail Kingfish
Seriola lalandi
Yellowtail Scad
Trachurus novaezelandiae


Sepia apama (Giant Cuttlefish)
Sepia pharaonis (Pharaoh’s Cuttlefish)

Other names:

Golden cuttlefish, Smith's cuttlefish.


Sepiidae (cuttlefish).


Available wild-caught, these marine and estuarine dwelling cephalopods have an almost oval body with very narrow fins around the edges, 8 short arms and 2 much longer tentacles. They are found right around the Australian coast; the giant cuttlefish over reefs, seagrass beds and open grounds to a depth of 50m, and other species in sheltered estuaries over seagrass and reefs or offshore on the continental shelf to about 110m. Pharaoh’s cuttlefish is a by-catch of prawn trawling, while giant cuttlefish and other smaller species are targeted in southern waters mainly by trawlers. In NSW and Queensland smaller quantities are also caught using beach seines and traps.


Available year round.

Size and Weight:

Commonly 150g and 10cm mantle length, but can grow to over 5kg and 52cm.


Low priced (usually cheaper than most squids and calamari).


There are about 10 species of cuttlefish found in Australian waters. They are related to squids, calamari and octopus in that they are all cephalopods, differing from them in having broader, thicker bodies and shorter arms than squids and calamari, and a thick calcified internal shell (‘cuttlebone’, often seen in birds’ cages).

To Buy:

When purchasing fresh whole cuttlefish look for intact bright skin, intact head, arms and tentacles and a pleasant fresh sea smell. Cleaned tubes should be white without any brown markings.

To Store:

Make sure cuttlefish is gutted and cleaned thoroughly. Wrap in plastic wrap or place in an airtight container. Refrigerate for up to 3 days or freeze for up to 3 months below -18ºC.

To Cook:

To clean whole cuttlefish: rinse, especially if ink sac is broken. Grasp the cuttlebone, through the tube, between thumb and forefinger and twist. The cuttlebone will cut through the skin and come away easily; discard the bone. Using your thumb to split the firm flesh away from the membrane, tear the tube open along the line where the cuttlebone was, starting from the base. Working from one side, break the intestinal sac (with arms and tentacles attached) away from the tube. Cut below the eyes; discard eyes and everything above them. Rinse, especially if the ink sac is broken. The arms and tentacles can also be washed and used. Push the beak (mouth) out from between the arms. Place the tube on a chopping board, skin-side down. Grasp a small side fin on one side and, using your thumb to separate the skin from the flesh, peel the flesh away from skin. Lay out flat and, working across the tube (not from top to bottom), wipe both sides of the tube firmly with paper towel to remove any remaining membrane. Slice the hood into strips, or score in a crosshatch pattern (called ‘honeycombing’). If slicing tubes that haven’t been honeycombed, slice from top to bottom of tube (not across tube) to prevent curling. It is also possible to cook cuttlefish without peeling it, the skin will turn a dark purple as it cooks. Average yield is 50%. It has a mild, subtle flavour, low-medium oiliness, and is dry with firm texture, which can be tough if poorly prepared. The flesh is translucent when raw and white when cooked.

Cooking Methods:

Steam, poach, deep-fry, pan-fry, stir-fry, bake, braise, grill, barbecue, raw (sashimi). To be tender, cuttlefish must be cooked very quickly over high heat or very slowly over low heat. The flesh of the mantle, arms and tentacles is suitable for a wide variety of preparations, strips can be dusted in seasoned flour and deep-fried or marinated and char-grilled or stir-fried. Cuttlefish ink is the traditional ingredient in black risotto or pasta (rather than that of squid or calamari). 

Goes well with:

Black beans, capers, capsicum, chilli, fresh herbs, garlic, ginger, green onions, lemongrass, lemon, lime, mushrooms, olive oil, olives, pasta, polenta, potato, rice, soy sauce, tomato.


Squids, calamari and, in some recipes, octopus.


Various species are imported, mainly from South East Asia, whole (cleaned, frozen and dried), as ‘steaks’, ‘cuttle crackers’ and shredded.


Black Handkerchief Pasta with Seafood & Tomato Sauce >
Catalan-style Cuttlefish >
Cuttlefish, Potato & Spinach Salad > 
Cuttlefish with Chorizo & Potatoes >
Salad of Cuttlefish, Tomato & Sweet Sour Onions >  
Seafood Hotpot >
Spicy Barbecued Cuttlefish with Cherry Tomato & Sprout Salad > 
Stir-Fried Cuttlefish, Asparagus & Oyster Mushrooms with Noodles >